In a recent review published in Journal of Clinical InvestigationThe researchers presented their view on the link between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) based on a previous study by Bjornevik et al. Published in Science.
The previous study reported an increased risk of multiple sclerosis among active-duty military personnel with EBV, reinforcing the need for EBV vaccines for soldiers. The authors have insisted on whether these vaccines are necessary for military personnel and whether live experiments and sociobiological factors [such as anxiety, stress, loneliness, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] It may influence the association between EBV and MS based on previous research findings.
In the current review, the researchers provided their views on the possible association between EBV and MS based on a previous study.
A previous study reported a 24-fold higher likelihood of developing MS among EBV-infected individuals than in non-EBV-infected individuals, supporting the need for EBV vaccines to prevent MS. However, the study authors mentioned pitfalls such as incomplete analysis and data misrepresentation in the study.
The study involved more than 10 million adults and was based on the US Department of Defense (US) HIV screening program between 1993 and 2013 in which sera were obtained from active duty military personnel on military admissions and every two years. . In the study, sera were obtained from MS patients (cases, n = 801) and controls (n = 1566) matched for age, sex, race, branch of service and date of sample data collection to assess antibody titer among military cadets against EBV, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV). -1), and HHV-6 (human herpes virus 6).
Case subjects showed either EBV-positive on military admission (Group A) or EBV-positivity during military admission to active military service (Group B). The odds ratios (OR) for developing MS for group A and group B individuals were 1.6 and 25.6, respectively, indicating a significantly greater risk of developing MS after EBV seroconversion.
Psychological assessments were performed based on the NEO Personality Inventory, the Health Stiffness Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Serum samples obtained in the study showed significant elevations in serum antibody titers, consistent with previous studies in individuals with high levels of psychological stress.
The authors suggested that several sociobiological factors based on exposure, behaviors (particularly those imposed from work), PTSD, and emotions from social relationships should be considered to explain the study findings. Stress and anxiety during active military combat and the loss of friends and/or colleagues while serving in the military can affect an individual’s risk of developing multiple sclerosis.
Integration of biological variables such as microbiome and genetic susceptibility), environmental variables such as latitude and toxicity changes, and biosocial variables such as live or biographical experiences associated with traumatic or stressful experiences may improve understanding of the etiology of multiple sclerosis.
The authors stated that the study was well suited for serological analysis. However, more quantitative analyzes are needed to gain more insights into the link between EBV and MS. DoD data can be combined with comprehensive data held by military forces about active-duty personnel, and determining the timing of injury after seroconversion can help identify potential windows for differential vulnerability.
Furthermore, allogeneic pregnancy (a physiological measurement of the collective stress burden on the human body) can be assessed using several biomedical markers to model the risk of developing MS after EBV seroconversion based on biosocial analysis. The authors cautioned against administration of EBV vaccines to prevent MS since the full range of biological and biological triggers for MS needs to be confirmed, although EBV infection has been associated with MS development.
In conclusion, the authors note that several biological and sociobiological factors may be associated with the development of post-EBV MS seroconversion that should be explored in future studies to determine the pathogenesis of MS among active duty military personnel with EBV. They believe that EBV vaccines may not be required to prevent MS among active duty military personnel with a prior history of EBV infection.
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